Personalized P-Values for Social/Personality Psychologists

Last update 4/9/2021
(includes 2020, expanded to 353 social/personality psychologists, minor corrections, added rank numbers for easy comparison)

Introduction

Since Fisher invented null-hypothesis significance testing, researchers have used p < .05 as a statistical criterion to interpret results as discoveries worthwhile of discussion (i.e., the null-hypothesis is false). Once published, these results are often treated as real findings even though alpha does not control the risk of false discoveries.

Statisticians have warned against the exclusive reliance on p < .05, but nearly 100 years after Fisher popularized this approach, it is still the most common way to interpret data. The main reason is that many attempts to improve on this practice have failed. The main problem is that a single statistical result is difficult to interpret. However, when individual results are interpreted in the context of other results, they become more informative. Based on the distribution of p-values it is possible to estimate the maximum false discovery rate (Bartos & Schimmack, 2020; Jager & Leek, 2014). This approach can be applied to the p-values published by individual authors to adjust p-values to keep the risk of false discoveries at a reasonable level, FDR < .05.

Researchers who mainly test true hypotheses with high power have a high discovery rate (many p-values below .05) and a low false discovery rate (FDR < .05). Figure 1 shows an example of a researcher who followed this strategy (for a detailed description of z-curve plots, see Schimmack, 2021).

We see that out of the 317 test-statistics retrieved from his articles, 246 were significant with alpha = .05. This is an observed discovery rate of 78%. We also see that this discovery rate closely matches the estimated discovery rate based on the distribution of the significant p-values, p < .05. The EDR is 79%. With an EDR of 79%, the maximum false discovery rate is only 1%. However, the 95%CI is wide and the lower bound of the CI for the EDR, 27%, allows for 14% false discoveries.

When the ODR matches the EDR, there is no evidence of publication bias. In this case, we can improve the estimates by fitting all p-values, including the non-significant ones. With a tighter CI for the EDR, we see that the 95%CI for the maximum FDR ranges from 1% to 3%. Thus, we can be confident that no more than 5% of the significant results wit alpha = .05 are false discoveries. Readers can therefore continue to use alpha = .05 to look for interesting discoveries in Matsumoto’s articles.

Figure 3 shows the results for a different type of researcher who took a risk and studied weak effect sizes with small samples. This produces many non-significant results that are often not published. The selection for significance inflates the observed discovery rate, but the z-curve plot and the comparison with the EDR shows the influence of publication bias. Here the ODR is similar to Figure 1, but the EDR is only 11%. An EDR of 11% translates into a large maximum false discovery rate of 41%. In addition, the 95%CI of the EDR includes 5%, which means the risk of false positives could be as high as 100%. In this case, using alpha = .05 to interpret results as discoveries is very risky. Clearly, p < .05 means something very different when reading an article by David Matsumoto or Shelly Chaiken.

Rather than dismissing all of Chaiken’s results, we can try to lower alpha to reduce the false discovery rate. If we set alpha = .01, the FDR is 15%. If we set alpha = .005, the FDR is 8%. To get the FDR below 5%, we need to set alpha to .001.

A uniform criterion of FDR < 5% is applied to all researchers in the rankings below. For some this means no adjustment to the traditional criterion. For others, alpha is lowered to .01, and for a few even lower than that.

The rankings below are based on automatrically extracted test-statistics from 40 journals (List of journals). The results should be interpreted with caution and treated as preliminary. They depend on the specific set of journals that were searched, the way results are being reported, and many other factors. The data are available (data.drop) and researchers can exclude articles or add articles and run their own analyses using the z-curve package in R (https://replicationindex.com/2020/01/10/z-curve-2-0/).

I am also happy to receive feedback about coding errors. I also recommended to hand-code articles to adjust alpha for focal hypothesis tests. This typically lowers the EDR and increases the FDR. For example, the automated method produced an EDR of 31 for Bargh, whereas hand-coding of focal tests produced an EDR of 12 (Bargh-Audit).

And here are the rankings. The results are fully automated and I was not able to cover up the fact that I placed only #139 out of 300 in the rankings. In another post, I will explain how researchers can move up in the rankings. Of course, one way to move up in the rankings is to increase statistical power in future studies. The rankings will be updated again when the 2021 data are available.

Despite the preliminary nature, I am confident that the results provide valuable information. Until know all p-values below .05 have been treated as if they are equally informative. The rankings here show that this is not the case. While p = .02 can be informative for one researcher, p = .002 may still entail a high false discovery risk for another researcher.

RankNameTestsODREDRERRFDRAlpha
1Robert A. Emmons588885881.05
2David Matsumoto3788379851.05
3Linda J. Skitka5326875822.05
4Jonathan B. Freeman2745975812.05
5Virgil Zeigler-Hill5157274812.05
6Arthur A. Stone3107573812.05
7David P. Schmitt2077871772.05
8Emily A. Impett5497770762.05
9Kurt Gray4877969812.05
10Kipling D. Williams8437569772.05
11John M. Zelenski1567169762.05
12Michael E. McCullough3346969782.05
13Hilary B. Bergsieker4396768742.05
14Cameron Anderson6527167743.05
15Jamil Zaki4307866763.05
16Rachel E. Jack2497066803.05
17A. Janet Tomiyama767865763.05
18Phoebe C. Ellsworth6057465723.05
19Jim Sidanius4876965723.05
20Benjamin R. Karney3925665733.05
21Carol D. Ryff2808464763.05
22Juliane Degner4356364713.05
23Steven J. Heine5977863773.05
24David M. Amodio5846663703.05
25Thomas N Bradbury3986163693.05
26Elaine Fox4727962783.05
27Klaus Fiedler19507761743.05
28Linda R. Tropp3446561803.05
29Richard W. Robins2707660704.05
30Simine Vazir1376660644.05
31Edward P. Lemay2898759814.05
32William B. Swann Jr.10707859804.05
33Margaret S. Clark5057559774.05
34Bernhard Leidner7246459654.05
35Patricia G. Devine6067158674.05
36B. Keith Payne8797158764.05
37Ximena B. Arriaga2846658694.05
38Rainer Reisenzein2016557694.05
39Barbara A. Mellers2878056784.05
40Jean M. Twenge3817256594.05
41Joris Lammers7056956694.05
42Nicholas Epley15047455724.05
43Krishna Savani6387153695.05
44Lee Jussim2268052715.05
45Edward L. Deci2847952635.05
46Richard M. Ryan9987852695.05
47Ethan Kross6146652675.05
48Roger Giner-Sorolla6638151805.05
49Jens B. Asendorpf2537451695.05
50Bertram F. Malle4227351755.05
51Tessa V. West6917151595.05
52Samuel D. Gosling1085851625.05
53Stefan Schmukle4367850815.05
54Paul Rozin4497850845.05
55Joachim I. Krueger4367850815.05
56Paul K. Piff1667750635.05
57Shinobu Kitayama9837650715.05
58Janice R. Kelly3667550705.05
59Matthew J. Hornsey16567450715.05
60James J. Gross11047250775.05
61Mark Rubin3066850755.05
62Sheena S. Iyengar2076350805.05
63Antonio L. Freitas2477950645.05
64Mina Cikara3927149805.05
65Ludwin E. Molina1636949615.05
66Edward R. Hirt10428148656.01
67Bertram Gawronski18037248766.01
68Penelope Lockwood4587148706.01
69John T. Cacioppo4387647696.01
70Daniel M. Wegner6027647656.01
71Agneta H. Fischer9527547696.01
72Matthew D. Lieberman3987247806.01
73Leaf van Boven7117247676.01
74Stephanie A. Fryberg2486247666.01
75Jennifer S. Lerner1818046616.01
76Rainer Banse4027846726.01
77Alice H. Eagly3307546716.01
78Jeanne L. Tsai12417346676.01
79Dacher Keltner12337245646.01
80Constantine Sedikides25667145706.01
81Andrea L. Meltzer5495245726.01
82R. Chris Fraley6427045727.01
83Ursula Hess7747844717.01
84Brian A. Nosek8166844817.01
85Charles M. Judd10547643687.01
86Jessica L. Tracy6327443717.01
87Mark Schaller5657343617.01
88Jason P. Mitchell6007343737.01
89S. Alexander Haslam11987243647.01
90Mario Mikulincer9018942647.01
91Susan T. Fiske9117842747.01
92Bernadette Park9737742647.01
93Jolanda Jetten19567342677.01
94Paul A. M. Van Lange10927042637.01
95Lisa Feldman Barrett6446942707.01
96Wendi L. Gardner7986742637.01
97Philip E. Tetlock5497941737.01
98Phillip Atiba Goff2996841627.01
99Jordan B. Peterson2666041797.01
100Amanda B. Diekman4388341707.01
101Stacey Sinclair3277041578.01
102Michael Inzlicht6866641638.01
103Tiffany A. Ito3498040648.01
104Wendy Wood4627540628.01
105Norbert Schwarz13377240638.01
106Richard E. Petty27716940648.01
107Elizabeth Page-Gould4115740668.01
108Tim Wildschut13747340648.01
109Veronika Job3627040638.01
110Marcel Zeelenberg8687639798.01
111Christian S. Crandall3627539598.01
112Tobias Greitemeyer17377239678.01
113Carol S. Dweck10287039638.01
114Jason E. Plaks5827039678.01
115Jerry Suls4137138688.01
116Eric D. Knowles3846838648.01
117C. Nathan DeWall13367338639.01
118John F. Dovidio20196938629.01
119Harry T. Reis9986938749.01
120Joshua Correll5496138629.01
121Abigail A. Scholer5565838629.01
122Clayton R. Critcher6978238639.01
123Kevin N. Ochsner4067937709.01
124Ayelet Fishbach14167837599.01
125Fritz Strack6077537569.01
126Mahzarin R. Banaji8807337789.01
127Antony S. R. Manstead16567237629.01
128Mark J. Brandt2777037709.01
129Lorne Campbell4336737619.01
130Geoff MacDonald4066737679.01
131Sanford E. DeVoe2367137619.01
132Duane T. Wegener9807736609.01
133Craig A. Anderson4677636559.01
134D. S. Moskowitz34187436639.01
135Joanne V. Wood10937436609.01
136Todd B. Kashdan3777336619.01
137Barbara L. Fredrickson2877236619.01
138Nyla R. Branscombe12767036659.01
139Niall Bolger3766736589.01
140Yaacov Schul4116136649.01
141Jeff T. Larsen18174366710.01
142Eva Walther49382356610.01
143Michael D. Robinson138878356610.01
144C. Miguel Brendl12176356810.01
145Samuel L. Gaertner32175356110.01
146Victoria M. Esses29575355310.01
147Azim F. Sharif18374356810.01
148Michael Harris Bond37873358410.01
149Glenn Adams27071357310.01
150John T. Jost79470356110.01
151Emily Balcetis59969356810.01
152Eric L. Uhlmann45767356110.01
153Igor Grossmann20364356610.01
154Nalini Ambady125662355610.01
155Diana I. Tamir15662356210.01
156Daphna Oyserman44655355410.01
157Thomas Gilovich119380346910.01
158Alison Ledgerwood21475345410.01
159Linda J. Levine49574347810.01
160Paula M. Niedenthal52269346110.01
161Wiebke Bleidorn9963347410.01
162Ozlem Ayduk54962345910.01
163Christopher R. Agnew32575337610.01
164Kerry Kawakami48768335610.01
165Danu Anthony Stinson49477335411.01
166Jennifer A. Richeson83167335211.01
167Malte Friese50161335711.01
168Michelle N. Shiota24260336311.01
169Margo J. Monteith77376327711.01
170Ulrich Schimmack31875326311.01
171Mark Snyder56272326311.01
172Robert B. Cialdini37972325611.01
173Russell H. Fazio109469326111.01
174Eric van Dijk23867326011.01
175Eli J. Finkel139262325711.01
176E. Ashby Plant83177315111.01
177Christopher K. Hsee68975316311.01
178Yuen J. Huo13274318011.01
179Delroy L. Paulhus12177318212.01
180John A. Bargh65172315512.01
181Roy F. Baumeister244269315212.01
182Tom Pyszczynski94869315412.01
183Jamie Arndt131869315012.01
184Kathleen D. Vohs94468315112.01
185Vivian Zayas25171316012.01
186Anthony G. Greenwald35772308312.01
187Dale T. Miller52171306412.01
188Aaron C. Kay132070305112.01
189Jennifer Crocker51568306712.01
190Arthur Aron30765305612.01
191Arthur Aron30765305612.01
192Lauren J. Human44759307012.01
193Nicholas O. Rule129468307513.01
194Steven W. Gangestad19863304113.005
195Boris Egloff27481295813.01
196Eliot R. Smith44579297313.01
197Jeff Greenberg135877295413.01
198Monica Biernat81377295713.01
199Hazel Rose Markus67476296813.01
200Russell Spears228673295513.01
201Richard E. Nisbett31973296913.01
202Gordon B. Moskowitz37472295713.01
203Nir Halevy26268297213.01
204Dirk Wentura83065296413.01
205Caryl E. Rusbult21860295413.01
206E. Allan Lind37082297213.01
207Roland Neumann25877286713.01
208Yoav Bar-Anan52575287613.01
209Jeffry A. Simpson69774285513.01
210Adam D. Galinsky215470284913.01
211Joshua Aronson18385284614.005
212Matthew Feinberg29577286914.01
213Elizabeth W. Dunn39575286414.01
214Naomi I. Eisenberger17974287914.01
215Eddie Harmon-Jones73873287014.01
216Brent W. Roberts56272287714.01
217Grainne M. Fitzsimons58568284914.01
218Geoffrey J. Leonardelli29068284814.005
219Sander L. Koole76765285214.01
220Richard J. Davidson38064285114.01
221Shelly L. Gable36464285014.01
222Guido H. E. Gendolla42276274714.005
223Jan De Houwer197270277214.01
224Karl Christoph Klauer80167276514.01
225Jennifer S. Beer8056275414.01
226Vanessa K. Bohns42276277415.01
227Charles Stangor18581276815.01
228Klaus R. Scherer46783267815.01
229Galen V. Bodenhausen58574266115.01
230Claude M. Steele43473264215.005
231Sonja Lyubomirsky53171265915.01
232William G. Graziano53271266615.01
233Kristin Laurin64863265115.01
234Kerri L. Johnson53276257615.01
235Phillip R. Shaver56681257116.01
236Ronald S. Friedman18379254416.005
237Mark J. Landau95078254516.005
238Nurit Shnabel56476257916.01
239David Dunning81874257016.01
240Laurie A. Rudman48272256816.01
241Joel Cooper25772253916.005
242Batja Mesquita41671257316.01
243David A. Lishner10565256316.01
244Steven J. Sherman88874246216.01
245Alison L. Chasteen22368246916.01
246Mark W. Baldwin24772244117.005
247Thomas Mussweiler60470244317.005
248Shigehiro Oishi110964246117.01
249Evan P. Apfelbaum25662244117.005
250Jonathan Haidt36876237317.01
251Jeffrey W Sherman99268237117.01
252Brandon J. Schmeichel65266234517.005
253Sam J. Maglio32572234217.005
254Roland Imhoff36574237318.01
255Felicia Pratto41073237518.01
256Klaus Rothermund73871237618.01
257Bernard A. Nijstad69371235218.005
258Jennifer L. Eberhardt20271236218.005
259Marilynn B. Brewer31475226218.005
260Michael Ross116470226218.005
261Dieter Frey153868225818.005
262David M. Buss46182228019.01
263Sean M. McCrea58473225419.005
264Wendy Berry Mendes96568224419.005
265Spike W. S. Lee14568226419.005
266Yoel Inbar28067227119.01
267Serena Chen86572226719.005
268Joseph P. Forgas88883215919.005
269Maya Tamir134280216419.005
270Paul W. Eastwick58365216919.005
271Elizabeth Levy Paluck3184215520.005
272Kees van den Bos115084216920.005
273Dolores Albarracin54066215620.005
274Andrew J. Elliot101881206721.005
275Ana Guinote37876204721.005
276David A. Pizarro22771206921.005
277Kentaro Fujita45869206221.005
278Geoffrey L. Cohen159068205021.005
279Tanya L. Chartrand42467203321.001
280Jay J. van Bavel43764207121.005
281William A. Cunningham23876206422.005
282Robert S. Wyer87182196322.005
283Amy J. C. Cuddy17081197222.005
284Nilanjana Dasgupta38376195222.005
285Gerald L. Clore45674194522.001
286Peter M. Gollwitzer130364195822.005
287Travis Proulx17463196222.005
288Selin Kesebir32866197322.005
289Richard P. Eibach75369194723.001
290James K. McNulty104756196523.005
291Kennon M. Sheldon69874186623.005
292Wilhelm Hofmann62467186623.005
293James M. Tyler13087187424.005
294Roland Deutsch36578187124.005
295Laura L. Carstensen72377186424.005
296Frank D. Fincham73469185924.005
297Toni Schmader54669186124.005
298Lisa K. Libby41865185424.005
299Ed Diener49864186824.005
300Chen-Bo Zhong32768184925.005
301Michel Tuan Pham24686176825.005
302Brad J. Bushman89774176225.005
303Ara Norenzayan22572176125.005
304E. Tory. Higgins186868175425.001
305Benoit Monin63565175625.005
306Carey K. Morewedge63376176526.005
307Michael W. Kraus61772175526.005
308Leandre R. Fabrigar63270176726.005
309Ap Dijksterhuis75068175426.005
310Timothy D. Wilson79865176326.005
311Joseph Cesario14662174526.001
312Simone Schnall27062173126.001
313Melissa J. Ferguson116372166927.005
314Daniel T. Gilbert72465166527.005
315Charles S. Carver15482166428.005
316Leif D. Nelson40974166428.005
317Mark P. Zanna65964164828.001
318Sandra L. Murray69760165528.001
319Laura A. King39176166829.005
320Heejung S. Kim85859165529.001
321Gun R. Semin15979156429.005
322Tal Eyal43962156229.005
323Nathaniel M Lambert45666155930.001
324Dana R. Carney20060155330.001
325Nira Liberman130475156531.005
326Lee Ross34977146331.001
327Shelley E. Taylor42769145231.001
328Ziva Kunda21767145631.001
329Jon K. Maner104065145232.001
330Arie W. Kruglanski122878145833.001
331Gregory M. Walton58769144433.001
332Gabriele Oettingen104761144933.001
333Sarah E. Hill50978135234.001
334Fiona Lee22167135834.001
335Michael A. Olson34665136335.001
336Michael A. Zarate12052133136.001
337Melody M. Chao23757135836.001
338Jamie L. Kurtz9155133837.001
339Daniel M. Oppenheimer19880126037.001
340Deborah A. Prentice8980125738.001
341Yaacov Trope127773125738.001
342Steven J. Spencer54167124438.001
343William von Hippel39865124840.001
344Oscar Ybarra30563125540.001
345Dov Cohen64168114441.001
346Ian McGregor40966114041.001
347Mark Muraven49652114441.001
348Susan M. Andersen36174114843.001
349Martie G. Haselton18673115443.001
350Shelly Chaiken36074115244.001
351Linda M. Isbell1156494150.001
352Hans Ijzerman2145694651.001
353Cheryl J. Wakslak2787383559.001

28 thoughts on “Personalized P-Values for Social/Personality Psychologists

  1. Only 801 of the listed 1260 effects were actually taken from research that I was involved in (some seem to stem from articles for which I was editor, others are a mystery to me). On the other hand, the majority of my research is missing. It seems preferable to publish data that is actually based on a more or less representative sample of research actually done by the person with whom that data is associated.

    Like

    1. Thank you for the comment. They are valuable to improve the informativeness of the z-curve analyses.
      1. only social/personalty journals and general journals like Psych Science were used (I posted a list of the journals).
      I will make clear which journals were used.
      2. I am trying to screen out mentions of names as editor, but the program is not perfect. I will look into this and update according.
      3. I found a way to screen out more articles where your name appeared in footnotes (thank you).
      4. I updated the results and they did improve.
      5. Please check the new results.

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      1. Thank you for the quick response. Some of my research is published in psychophysiology or cognitive journals hence I now understand why so much is missing.

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      2. I figure that research practices can vary once physiological measures are taken or in cognitive studies with within-subject designs. I will eventually do similar posts for other areas.

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  2. I’m dismayed (and aghast) to see that I’m almost at the bottom of this list. Any advice on how to investigate this further to see where the problem lies?

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    1. Thank you for your comment.
      You can download a file called “William von Hippel-rindex.csv”
      It contains all the articles that were used and computes the R-Index based on the z-scores found for that article. The R-Index is a simple way to estimate replicability that works for small sets of test statistics. An R-Index of 50 would suggest that the replicability is about 50%. The EDR would be lower, but is hard to estimate with a small set of test statistics. The file is sorted by the R-Index. Articles with an R-Index below 50 are probably not robust. This is a good way to start diagnosing the problem.

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      1. Hi Uli, that’s very helpful – thanks!

        But now I’m confused. To start with the worst offenders on my list, I have four papers with an R-Index of 0. I can’t tell what two of them are, as your identifier doesn’t include the article title or authors, but two of them are clear. The first of those two has large samples, reports a wide variety of large and small correlations, and strikes me as highly replicable. Indeed, study 2 (N=466) is a direct replication of study 1 (N=196) with an even larger sample. Study 3 goes in a slightly different direction, but mostly relies on the data from Study 2. The other paper reports large samples (Ns = 200) but small effects. We submitted it with only one study, the editor asked for replication, we ran a direct replication with the same sample size and found the same effect. Those are both in the paper. Since then we’ve tried to replicate it once and have succeeded (that finding isn’t yet published).

        That’s the first issue, and strikes me as the most important. Secondarily, there are at least four or five papers in this list that aren’t my own – perhaps more but it’s hard to tell what some of the papers are – and the resultant list of papers is only about 1/3 of my empirical publications. Thus, setting aside the most important issue above, I don’t have a clear sense of what my actual replicability score would look like with all of my papers.

        All the best, Bill

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  3. There are numerous correlations reported in both papers, along with various mediational analyses in one of them, so definitely not a single result.

    With regard to the second issue, the file lists the journal title and year, but that’s it. Sometimes I haven’t published in that journal in that year, so I know it’s not me. Sometimes I have, but in this particular case the only paper I published in that journal in that year has another one of the R = 0 examples, but includes a sample in the millions and a multiverse analysis. There’s no chance that could have a replicability index of 0.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Thanks Uli, very kind of you to offer to run the analysis for me. I’ve created a dropbox folder with all of my empirical articles in it and shared it with you. Let me know if that doesn’t come through. Best, Bill

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Hi Uli,

    I am surprised that the work you are analyzing for my index contains only 36 entries (when Web of Science retrieves 155). Two of the entries you list are not mine.

    Please make sure you include all empirical publications for an author, which in my case span a variety of areas, methods, and journals. Excluding the papers that are not mine would also be methodologically sound and make your own work more authoritative before you disseminate it.

    Thanks,
    Dolores

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    1. The method uses a sampling approach. It is based on the journals that are tracked in the replicability rankings of 120 psychology journals, although it may expand as the rankings expand. The list of 120 journals includes the major social psychology journals. So, it is possible that your results might differ for other areas, but as this list focusses on social psychology, it also makes sense to focus on these journals.

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    2. P.S. We all learned after 2011 that the way we collected and analyzed data was wrong and resulted in inflated estimates of replicability and effect sizes. These results mainly reflect this. How have your research practices changed over the past 10 years in response to the replication crisis?

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      1. There are two articles of which I am not an author. They are not too easy to find in the very small sample you have. I have to find your data again to point them out but they are pretty obvious from the authors and should be checked. Thanks

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      2. It is not that easy. I would have to open all 36 articles to check the full author list. As you already did the work, it would be nice to share the information with me so that I can remove them.

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      3. These two are not mine, Uli:

        entry 26, The impression management of intelligence
        entry 5, US southern and northern differences in perception

        You should add an index of how much of an author’s work you’re tracking. It is likely not a valid representation of the author per se unless you select papers at random from the person’s record.

        The replication crisis was fully established towards the mid-2010s right? so the last 10 years do not reflect the changes in response to it.

        Liked by 1 person

      4. I found the problem why those two studies were included and ran the search again. The main results showed a change in the ODR from 67 to 66 percent and in the EDR from 19 to 21 percent.

        Not all of your other publications are original studies (e.g. meta-analysis). Others are in years that are not covered or journals that are not covered. If you send me a folder with pdf files of these articles, I am happy to include them.

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      5. Thanks, Uli. I will get you the PDFs. Meta-analyses are still quantitative research, so you should find a way of including them. The statistics are all comparable and power matters too.

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      6. Meta-analysis are different from original articles in important ways.
        1. Authors have no influence on the quality of the studies they meta-analyze.
        2. The focus is on effect size estimation and not on hypothesis testing.
        Thus, it makes no sense to include them in an investigation of the robustness of original research.

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      7. Well, they don’t control the quality but they can select for quality and they definitely have statistical power considerations. In many cases, the focus IS actually on hypothesis testing and testing new hypotheses, and the method does signal an interest in reproducibility for sure.

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      8. I am not saying meta-analysis are not important and cannot be evaluated, but my method cannot do this. This also means that the results here are not an overall evaluation of a researcher, which no single index can (including H-Index).

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