In the 2010s, it became apparent that empirical psychology has a replication problem. When psychologists tested the replicability of 100 results, they found that only 36% of the 97 significant results in original studies could be reproduced (Open Science Collaboration, 2015). In addition, several prominent cases of research fraud further undermined trust in published results. Over the past decade, several proposals were made to improve the credibility of psychology as a science. Replicability reports are the results of one of these initiatives.
The main problem in psychological science is the selective publishing of statistically significant results and the blind trust in statistically significant results as evidence for researchers’ theoretical claims. Unfortunately, psychologists have been unable to self-regulate their behavior and continue to use unscientific practices to hide evidence that disconfirms their predictions. Moreover, ethical researchers who do not use unscientific practices are at a disadvantage in a game that rewards publishing many articles without any concern about the replicability of these findings.
My colleagues and I have developed a statistical tools that can reveal the use of unscientific practices and predict the outcome of replication studies (Brunner & Schimmack, 2021; Bartos & Schimmack, 2022). This method is called z-curve. Z-curve cannot be used to evaluate the credibility of a single study. However, it can provide valuable information about the research practices in a particular research domain.
Research reports use z-curve to provide information about psychological journals. This information can be used by authors to chose journals they want to publish in, provides feedback to journal editors who have influence on selection bias and replicability of results published in their journals, and most importantly to readers of these journals.