Category Archives: Hand-Coding

Estimating the Replicability of Psychological Science

Over the past years, psychologists have become increasingly concerned about the credibility of published results. The credibility crisis started in 2011, when Bem published incredible results that seemed to suggest that humans can foresee random future events. Bem’s article revealed fundamental flaws in the way psychologists conduct research. The main problem is that psychology journals only publish statistically significant results (Sterling, 1959). If only significant results are published, all hypotheses will receive empirical support as long as they are tested. This is akin to saying that everybody has a 100% free throw average or nobody ever makes a mistake if we do not count failures.

The main problem of selection for significance is that we do not know the real strength of evidence that empirical studies provide. Maybe the selection effect is small and most studies would replicate. However, it is also possible that many studies might fail a replication test. Thus, the crisis of confidence is a crisis of uncertainty.

The Open Science Collaboration conducted actual replication studies to estimate the replicability of psychological science. They replicated 97 studies with statistically significant results and were able to reproduce 35 significant results (a 36% success rate). This is a shockingly low success rate. Based on this finding, most published results cannot be trusted, especially because there is heterogeneity across studies. Some studies would have an even lower chance of replication and several studies might even be outright false positives (there is actually no real effect).

As important as this project was to reveal major problems with the research culture in psychological science, there are also some limitations that cast doubt about the 36% estimate as a valid estimate of the replicability of psychological science. First, the sample size is small and sampling error alone might have lead to an underestimation of the replicability in the population of studies. However, sampling error could also have produced a positive bias. Another problem is that most of the studies focused on social psychology and that replicability in social psychology could be lower than in other fields. In fact, a moderator analysis suggested that the replication rate in cognitive psychology is 50%, while the replication rate in social psychology is only 25%. The replicated studies were also limited to a single year (2008) and three journals. It is possible that the replication rate has increased since 2008 or could be higher in other journals. Finally, there have been concerns about the quality of some of the replication studies. These limitations do not undermine the importance of the project, but they do imply that the 36% estimate is an estimate and that it may underestimate the replicability of psychological science.

Over the past years, I have been working on an alternative approach to estimate the replicability of psychological science. This approach starts with the simple fact that replicabiliity is tightly connected to the statistical power of a study because statistical power determines the long-run probability of producing significant results (Cohen, 1988). Thus, estimating statistical power provides valuable information about replicability. Cohen (1962) conducted a seminal study of statistical power in social psychology. He found that the average power to detect an average effect size was around 50%. This is the first estimate of replicability of psychological science, although it was only based on one journal and limited to social psychology. However, subsequent studies replicated Cohen’s findings and found similar results over time and across journals (Sedlmeier & Gigerenzer, 1989). It is noteworthy that the 36% estimate from the OSC project is not statistically different from Cohen’s estimate of 50%. Thus, there is convergent evidence that replicability in social psychology is around 50%.

In collaboration with Jerry Brunner, I have developed a new method that can estimate mean power for a set of studies that are selected for significance and that vary in effect sizes and samples sizes, which produces heterogeneity in power (Brunner & Schimmack, 2018). The input for this method are the actual test statistics of significance tests (e.g., t-tests, F-tests). These test-statistics are first converted into two-tailed p-values and then converted into absolute z-scores. The magnitude of these absolute z-scores provides information about the strength of evidence against the null-hypotheses. The histogram of these z-scores, called a z-curve, is then used to fit a finite mixture model to the data that estimates mean power, while taking selection for significance intro account. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that z-curve performs well and provides better estimates than alternative methods. Thus, z-curve is the method of choice for estimating the replicability of psychological science on the basis of the test statistics that are reported in original articles.

For this blog post, I am reporting results based on preliminary results from a large project that extracts focal hypothesis from a broad range of journals that cover all areas of psychology for the years 2010 to 2017. The hand-coding of these articles complements a similar project that relies on automatic extraction of test statistics (Schimmack, 2018).

Table 1 shows the journals that have been coded so far. It also shows the estimates based on the automated method and for hand-coding of focal hypotheses.

JournalHandAutomated
Psychophysiology8475
Journal of Abnormal Psychology7668
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology7377
Journal of Research in Personality6875
J. Exp. Psych: Learning, Memory, & Cognition5877
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology5562
Infancy5368
Behavioral Neuroscience5368
Psychological Science5266
JPSP-Interpersonal Relations & Group Processes3363
JPSP-Attitudes and Social Cognition3065
Mean5869

Hand coding of focal hypothesis produces lower estimates than the automated method because the automated analysis also codes manipulation checks and other highly significant results that are not theoretically important. The correlation between the two methods shows consistency across the two methods, r = .67. Finally, the mean for the automated method, 69%, is close to the mean for over 100 journals, 72%, suggesting that the sample of journals is an unbiased sample.

The hand coding results also confirm results found with the automated method that social psychology has a lower replicability than some other disciplines. Thus, the OSC reproducibility results that are largely based on social psychology should not be used to make claims about psychological science in general.

The figure below shows the output of the latest version of z-curve. The first finding is that the replicability estimate for all 1,671 focal tests is 56% with a relatively tight confidence interval ranging from 45% to 56%. ZZZ The next finding is that the discovery rate or success rate is 92%, using p < .05 as the criterion. This confirms that psychology journals continue to published results are selected for significance (Sterling, 1959). The histogram further shows that even more results would be significant if p-values below .10 are included as evidence for “marginal significance.”

Z-Curve.19.1 also provides an estimate of the size of the file drawer. It does so by projecting the distribution of observed significant results into the range of non-significant results (grey curve). The file drawer ratio shows that for every published result, we would expect roughly two unpublished studies with non-significant results. However, z-curve cannot distinguish between different questionable research practices. Rather than not disclosing failed studies researchers may not disclose other statistical analyses within a published study to report significant results.

Z-Curve.19.1 also provides an estimate of the false positive rate (FDR). FDR is the percentage of significant results that may arise from testing a true nil-hypothesis, where the population effect size is zero. For a long time, the consensus has been that false positives are rare because the nil-hypothesis is rarely true (Cohen, 1994). Consistent with this view, Soric’s estimate of the maximum false discovery rate is only 10% with a tight CI ranging from 8% to 16%.

However, the focus on the nil-hypothesis is misguided because it treats tiny deviations from zero as true hypotheses even if the effect size has no practical or theoretical significance. These effect sizes also lead to low power and replication failures. Therefore, Z-Curve 19.1 also provides an estimate of the FDR that treats studies with very low power as false positives. This broader definition of false positives raises the FDR estimate slightly, but 15% is still a low percentage. Thus, the modest replicability of results in psychological science is mostly due to low statistical power to detect true effects rather than a high number of false positive discoveries.

The reproducibility project showed that studies with low p-values were more likely to replicate. This relationship follows from the influence of statistical power on p-values and replication rates. To achieve a replication rate of 80%, p-values had to be less than .00005 or the z-score had to exceed 4 standard deviations. However, this estimate was based on a very small sample of studies. Z-Curve.19.1 also provides estimates of replicability for different levels of evidence. These values are shown below the x-axis. Consistent with the OSC results, a replication rate over 80% is only expected once z-scores are greater than 4.

The results also provide information about the choice of the alpha criterion to draw inferences from significance tests in psychology. To do so, it is important to distinguish observed p-values and type-I probabilities. For a single unbiased tests, we can infer from an observed p-value less than .05 that the risk of a false positive result is less than 5%. However, when multiple comparisons are made or results are selected for significance, an observed p-values less than .05 does not imply that the type-I error risk is below .05. To claim a type-I error risk of 5% or less, we have to correct the observed p-values, just like a Bonferroni correction. As 50% power corresponds to statistical significance, we see that z-scores between 2 and 3 are not statistically significant; that is, the type-I error risk is greater than 5%. Thus, the standard criterion to claim significance with alpha = .05 is a p-value of .003. Given the popularity of .005, I suggest to use p = .005 as a criterion for statistical significance. However, this claim is not based on lowering the criterion for statistical significance because p < .005 still only allows to claim that the type-I error probability is less than 5%. The need for a lower criterion value stems from the inflation of the type-I error rate due to selection for significance. This is a novel argument that has been overlooked in the significance wars, which ignored the influence of publication bias on false positive risks.

Finally, z-curve.19.1 makes it possible to examine the robustness of the estimates by using different selection criteria. One problem with selection models is that p-values just below .05, say in the .01 to .05 range, can arise from various questionable research practices that have different effects on replicability estimates. To address this problem, it is possible to estimate the density with a different selection criterion, while still estimating the replicability with alpha = .05 as the criterion. Figure 2 shows the results by using only z-scores greater than 2.5, p = .012) to fit the observed z-curve for z-scores greater than 2.5.

The blue dashed line at z = 2.5 shows the selection criterion. The grey curve between 1.96 and 2.5 is projected form the distribution for z-scores greater than 2.5. Results show a close fit with the observed distribution. A s a result, the parameter estimates are also very similar. Thus, the results are robust and the selection model seems to be reasonable.

Conclusion

Psychology is in a crisis of confidence about the credibility of published results. The fundamental problems are as old as psychology itself. Psychologists have conducted low powered studies and selected only studies that worked for decades (Cohen, 1962; Sterling, 1959). However, awareness of these problems has increased in recent years. Like many crises, the confidence crisis in psychology has created confusion. Psychologists are aware that there is a problem, but they do not know how large the problem is. Some psychologists believe that there is no crisis and pretend that most published results can be trusted. Others are worried that most published results are false positives. Meta-psychologists aim to reduce the confusion among psychologists by applying the scientific method to psychological science itself.

This blog post provided the most comprehensive assessment of the replicability of psychological science so far. The evidence is largely consistent with previous meta-psychological investigations. First, replicability is estimated to be slightly above 50%. However, replicability varies across discipline and the replicability of social psychology is below 50%. The fear that most published results are false positives is not supported by the data. Replicability increases with the strength of evidence against the null-hypothesis. If the p-value is below .00001, studies are likely to replicate. However, significant results with p-values above .005 should not be considered statistically significant with an alpha level of 5%, because selection for significance inflates the type-I error. Only studies with p < .005 can claim statistical significance with alpha = .05.

The correction for publication bias implies that researchers have to increase sample sizes to meet the more stringent p < .005 criterion. However, a better strategy is to preregister studies to ensure that reported results can be trusted. In this case, p-values below .05 are sufficient to demonstrate statistical significance with alpha = .05. Given the low prevalence of false positives in psychology, I do see no need to lower the alpha criterion.

Future Directions

This blog post is just an interim report. The final project requires hand-coding of a broader range of journals. Readers who think that estimating the replicability of psychological science is beneficial and who want information about a particular journal are invited to collaborate on this project and can obtain authorship if their contribution is substantial enough to warrant authorship. Please consider taking part in this project. Although it is a substantial time commitment, it doesn’t require participants or materials that are needed for actual replication studies. Please consider taking part in this project. Contact me, if you are interested and want to know how you can get involved.